Many people ask me why the hill is not preserved as a historic site and available for public use. A simple answer to that is that while there were many efforts to preserve the hill - they were not successful and it has remained private property.

However, the fact that Native American artifacts have been collected and lost for over a hundred years in our region. The loss of massive amounts of archaeological evidence is the single most reason why sites like Spanish Hill have not been saved as important archaeological sites for the public to enjoy.  Watch a video here on the 1916 Susquehanna River Expedition by Warren K. Moorehead just as one example of this here:

In 1946 Spanish Hill actually went to auction and while the Bradford County Museum and Tioga Point  Museum pooled together with others in the community like Donald Guthrie who donated $100 to the cause, they lost to the Liddiard family who then kept it as private property.

In the late 60's the state of the hill again was in jeopardy for use as landfill for the highway. And if it hadn't been for Ellsworth Cowles taking artifacts from the hill to the state archaeologist, the hill actually would no longer exist. As the story goes, the artifacts so struck the state archaeologist that work was halted immediately and new plans were made for only taking a small piece of the hill...Thankfully, the steep eastern side that now has no trees right next to Rte 220 is all they ended up taking.

The last attempt to preserve the hill in 1984 is presented here in a timeline that was created to illustrate the events as they occurred. As you will see Ted Keir assisted the Greater Valley Chamber of Commerce in trying to nominate the hill as a historic site worthy of preservation  - But one man, State Archaeologist Dr. Barry Kent  would hold the fate of the hill in his hands

- and the rest is - HISTORY...

Actual Documents from 1984:


State Archaeologist Dr. Barry Kent's first version of "Susquehanna's Indians" went to print:
"An exhaustive historical and archaeological study of the Susquehannock and other Indians of the Susquehanna Valley from 1450 to 1750 A.D. Includes a 1993 addendum to the 1984 edition."
Read about Barry Kent and what he wrote about Spanish HIll here.


Ted Keir fills out a form to the PHMC - nominating Spanish Hill as a historic resource. The Valley Chamber of Commerce sends Ted's form with the following letter to the PHMC
See these here.


The following "decision sheet" shows who from the PHMC had what to say about the nomination sent to them concerning Spanish Hill - As you will see ALL of the panel either said nothing or left the decision up to one one panel member names him, "Sir Kent."
Click here to see the worksheet


The following official record was kept concerning the "ineligibility" of Spanish Hill as a Historic Resource by the PHMC.
Click here to read the formal report

 And that is the reason why the hill is not preserved today as a historic site.

It is hard to believe that one man's error could effect a site and community as much as it did. Isn't it? There would be others that would continue to argue Kent's points and that is the time and environment that I entered when I started my research. It would not be long before I then decided to publish the article in the PA Archaeologist peer reviewed scientific journal to prove once and for all that Kent was not correct about Spanish Hill or Carantouan. - and to educate our community about what an important site it is.

In 2005 - I was published in the Pennsylvania Archaeological Journal on this very information that I have provided here.

The following was written by the editor/peer reviewer of the journal:

“Given the defensive character of Spanish Hill and reports of fortifications there, it seems a likely candidate as any for the fortified stronghold of Carantouan reported by Brule. Additional archaeological testing at Spanish Hill may one day answer the question of whether or not a Contact Era component exists at the site. Until more information is known, it seems imprudent to eliminate Spanish Hill as a possible site related to the nation of Carantouan, as some researchers have done." (Kent 1984:300-301, McCracken 1984).” PA Archaeologist, Volume 75, 2, Fall 2005.